Biological science is the study of living organisms and their relationship with each other and their environment. It examines the origin, evolution, structure and function of living things. A biologist might study cells under a microscope, insects in a tropical rain forest, viruses that affect human beings, plants in a greenhouse, or animal in a zoo.

It increases our understanding about the natural world in which we live and helps us address issues of personal well being and worldwide concern, such as environmental depletion, threats to human health, and maintaining viable and abundant food supplies.

Biological scientists who work in applied research or product development use knowledge gained by basic research to develop new drugs, treatments, medical diagnostic tests, increase crop yields, and develop new bio-fuels. Work is generally performed in a laboratory or outdoor field setting. 

Some of the Biological sciences are grouped by the type of organism being studied: botany, the study of plants; zoology, the study of animals; and microbiology, the study of microorganisms, where some are classified based on the extent at which organisms are being studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry investigates the fundamental chemistry of life; molecular biology examines the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules; physiology studies the physical and chemical functions of the tissues and organ systems of an organism and cellular biology examines the basic building block of life, the cell.

Nature of work

  • Plants, livestock, and habitats are studied by researching, naming, classifying, and observing them in order to get a better understanding of how they function and interact with each other and the environment.
  • Collecting samples, measurements, and photographing or sketching specimens, and gathering other data that could contribute to new insights into organisms or ecosystems.
  • Observing animals to learn more about their diets, behaviours, and environmental effects.
  • Keeping detailed, reliable notes of study or findings.
  • Creating papers, giving lectures to students, and sharing observations, as well as addressing the possible environmental effects of invasive plants, pest management practises, and other activities or incidents.
  • Leading study teams and maintaining proper task and resource allocation
  • Writing reports about observations and proposals for funding and projects

Scope of biology

There is a vast and diverse scope in Pakistan for the field of biology. You can step into academic teaching and research in various programs with governmental and Multinational companies as well as in food and feed industries. The key areas of development and employment include the Pharmaceutical industry, Biotechnology, Bio informatics, Contract Research, Food Industry, Water Conservation, Gene Therapy, Global Warming and the Chemical Industry.

How to become a biologist

A four year specialized bachelor degree or formal sixteen years of education may be sufficient for some non-research jobs. Some graduates work as research assistants, laboratory technicians, or high school biology teachers. Many with a bachelor’s degree in biology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. A Ph.D. degree in biology or one of its specialized areas is necessary for independent research, industrial research, and college/University teaching, as well as for administrative positions. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs such as product development, management, or inspection.

EducationAdmission Requirements
  BS 4 Years  FSc. Pre-medical orEquivalence if other than FSc (A’Level etc…)  
MS/ M.Phill2 Years
Ph.D.3-5 Years

Best universities

  • Lahore University Of Management Sciences
  • International Islamic University
  • Pir Mahar Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University

For details on institutes offering biology, visit our program finder at

Job market and opportunities

  • Graduates find employment in academic teaching and research, industrial research in the food and feed industries, in laboratory research programs with governmental and Multinational companies, and in industrial management positions.
  • Government Department of Agriculture
  • Private Pesticide Companies
  • Seed Cooperation of Pakistan
  • Fertilizer Companies
  • Progressive Farms
  • Soil Testing Laboratories
  • Tissue Culture Laboratories
  • Genetic Engineering Laboratories
  • Private Farming
  • Agri-Based Industries
  • Universities
  • Private & Public Consultancies

Most Biological scientists need at least a master’s degree to work in basic or applied research, whereas a bachelor’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in product development. 

Qualities Required

  • Curious
  • Observant
  • Precise
  • Analytical/ able to Analyze
  • Patience and self-discipline to conduct long and detailed research projects.
  • Those doing field research in remote areas must have physical stamina.
  • Should be able to work independently or as part of a team and
  • Be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing.
  • Strong business and communication skills for administrative positions


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